Home Chemistry Starch And Cellulose: Understanding The Polysaccharides Of Glucose

Starch And Cellulose: Understanding The Polysaccharides Of Glucose

Carbohydrates WOW! Macromolecules

The Basics of Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates made up of multiple units of simple sugars called monosaccharides. Glucose is the most common monosaccharide in nature and is the building block for many polysaccharides. Two important polysaccharides of glucose are starch and cellulose.

Starch: A Common Energy Source

Starch is a plant-based polysaccharide that serves as a primary energy source for many organisms, including humans. It is commonly found in foods such as grains, potatoes, and beans. Starch is made up of two types of glucose molecules: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is a linear chain of glucose units, while amylopectin is a branched chain. When we eat starch, our bodies break it down into glucose, which is then used as fuel for our cells. Starch is also used in food production as a thickener and stabilizer.

Cellulose: A Structural Component of Plants

Cellulose is another plant-based polysaccharide composed of glucose units. However, unlike starch, cellulose is not digestible by humans and serves a structural role in plants. It is a major component of plant cell walls, providing strength and rigidity to the plant. While humans cannot digest cellulose, it is an important source of dietary fiber, which helps regulate digestion and promotes overall health.

Differences Between Starch and Cellulose

Although both starch and cellulose are made up of glucose units, they have distinct differences. Starch is soluble in water, while cellulose is not. Starch is also easily broken down by enzymes in our bodies, while cellulose is not. Additionally, the way the glucose units are bonded together in starch and cellulose differs, resulting in different physical and chemical properties. These differences give starch and cellulose their unique functions in nature and in our bodies.

Applications of Starch and Cellulose

Starch and cellulose have numerous applications in various industries, including food, paper, and textiles. Starch is commonly used as a thickener in sauces, soups, and gravies, as well as a binding agent in processed foods. Cellulose is used in the production of paper, textiles, and even some types of plastics.


In summary, starch and cellulose are both important polysaccharides of glucose with distinct functions and properties. While starch serves as a primary energy source for many organisms, cellulose provides structural support for plants. Understanding the differences between starch and cellulose can help us appreciate their importance in nature and in various industries.

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