Chemical quantities are essential in chemistry as it helps us understand the composition of different chemicals. These are expressed in different units, such as moles, grams, and molecules. Chapter 10 of chemistry textbooks covers the topic of chemical quantities, and this article will provide a vocabulary review of the chapter.
The Mole Concept
The mole concept is the foundation of chemical quantities. It is defined as the amount of substance that contains the same number of entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. This number is known as Avogadro’s number, which is 6.022 x 10^23. The mole is expressed using the symbol ‘mol.’
Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance. It is expressed in grams per mole (g/mol). To calculate the molar mass of a compound, we add the atomic masses of all atoms in the compound.
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
The empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound. On the other hand, the molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula.
Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships between the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. It is essential in determining the amount of reactants needed to produce a certain amount of product and vice versa.
The limiting reactant is the reactant that is entirely consumed in a chemical reaction. It determines the maximum amount of product that can be produced.
The percent yield is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, expressed as a percentage. It is used to determine the efficiency of a chemical reaction.
Molarity is the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. It is expressed using the symbol ‘M.’
Dilution is the process of decreasing the concentration of a solution by adding more solvent. The number of moles of solute remains constant during dilution.
Molality is the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. It is expressed using the symbol ‘m.’
In conclusion, understanding chemical quantities is essential in chemistry. This article has provided a vocabulary review of Chapter 10 of chemistry textbooks. It covered topics such as the mole concept, molar mass, empirical and molecular formulas, stoichiometry, limiting reactants, percent yield, molarity, dilution, and molality.