What is Sodium Bicarbonate?
Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, is a white crystalline powder that is used in various ways. It is an antacid that is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. It is also used as a leavening agent in baking and as a cleaning agent for household purposes. In pediatrics, sodium bicarbonate is used to treat various medical conditions.
Uses of Sodium Bicarbonate in Pediatrics
Sodium bicarbonate is used in pediatrics for various medical conditions such as metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, and cystic fibrosis. It is also used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to correct acidosis and improve the effectiveness of epinephrine.
Sodium Bicarbonate Dose
The dose of sodium bicarbonate in pediatrics depends on the medical condition being treated. For metabolic acidosis, the dose is usually 1-2 mEq/kg IV bolus. For hyperkalemia, the dose is usually 1 mEq/kg IV bolus. For tricyclic antidepressant overdose, the dose is usually 1-2 mEq/kg IV bolus. For cystic fibrosis, the dose is usually 1-2 mEq/kg orally. During CPR, the dose is usually 1 mEq/kg IV bolus.
Side Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate
Although sodium bicarbonate is generally safe, it can cause some side effects in pediatrics such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and headache. It can also cause metabolic alkalosis, which is a condition where the pH of the blood becomes too alkaline. This can lead to muscle weakness, confusion, and seizures.
Precautions and Contraindications
Sodium bicarbonate should be used with caution in pediatrics with congestive heart failure, hypertension, and edema as it can worsen these conditions. It is contraindicated in pediatrics with hypocalcemia, alkalosis, and hypokalemia. It should also be used with caution in pediatrics with renal failure as it can cause electrolyte imbalances.
Sodium bicarbonate is a useful medication in pediatrics for various medical conditions. However, it should be used with caution and under medical supervision. The correct dose should be administered based on the medical condition being treated. Parents and caregivers should be aware of the potential side effects and contraindications of sodium bicarbonate in pediatrics.
- “Sodium Bicarbonate Injection.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 15 Nov. 2018, medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682001.html.
- “Sodium Bicarbonate.” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 24 Nov. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441864/.