The Chemical Composition Of Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde Formula CH2O Name, Structure, Uses, Compound


Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas with a strong, irritating odor. It is widely used in many industries, including construction, textiles, and healthcare. In this article, we will explore the chemical composition of formaldehyde, its properties, and its uses.

Chemical Properties

Formaldehyde has a chemical formula of CH2O and a molecular weight of 30.03 g/mol. It is a simple organic compound that contains one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Formaldehyde is highly reactive and can easily form chemical bonds with other molecules.


The structure of formaldehyde is described as a trigonal planar molecule. The carbon atom is at the center of the molecule, with two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom arranged around it. The bond angles between the atoms are 120 degrees, and the molecule has a dipole moment, meaning that it has a partial positive charge on the carbon atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom.

Physical Properties

Formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature and pressure, with a boiling point of -19°C and a melting point of -92°C. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and other polar solvents. Formaldehyde has a pungent odor that is detectable at low concentrations, and it can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat.


Formaldehyde is widely used in many industries, including:


Formaldehyde is used in the production of resins and adhesives that are used in the manufacture of plywood, particleboard, and other wood products.


Formaldehyde is used in the production of fabrics and clothing to improve their durability and wrinkle resistance.


Formaldehyde is used as a disinfectant and preservative in medical and laboratory settings.

Health Effects

Formaldehyde is classified as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Exposure to formaldehyde can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly of the nasal passages and upper throat.


In conclusion, formaldehyde is a simple organic compound that is widely used in many industries. Its chemical composition, physical properties, and uses make it an important and versatile chemical. However, its health effects cannot be ignored, and measures should be taken to minimize exposure to this potentially harmful substance.